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Il Piccolo Museo del Lavoro e dell'Industria


Annotazioni storiche e sociali

"Da qui gli Etruschi..."





















Luciano Russo






































































































































The "Human" Rights





















The Special Rights of the

"Child" [below the Age of 18]





















The Rights of All [Other]






















































































Universal Declaration




















of Human Rights


























































On December 10, 1948 the General Assembly of the United Nations

adopted and proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human

Rights the full text of which appears in the following pages.


Following this historic act the Assembly called upon all Member

countries to publicize the text of the Declaration and "to cause it to

be disseminated, displayed, read and expounded principally in

schools and other educational institutions, without distinction

based on the political status of countries or territories".


On this page the full text of the Declaration in

Italian, English and Swedish.






































































































































"Universal Declaration




















of Human Rights































































Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of

the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the

human family is the foundation of freedom, justice

and peace in the world,


Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights

have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged

the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a

world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of

speech and belief and freedom from fear and want

has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the

common people,


Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled

to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against

tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be

protected by the rule of law,


Whereas it is essential to promote the development

of friendly relations between nations,


Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in

the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental

human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human

person and in the equal rights of men and women

and have determined to promote social progress and

better standards of life in larger freedom,


Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to

achieve, in co-operation with the United Nations, the

promotion of universal respect for and observance of

human rights and fundamental freedoms,


Whereas a common understanding of these rights

and freedoms is of the greatest importance for the

full realization of this pledge,



Now, Therefore


proclaims this





as a common standard of achievement for all peoples

and all nations, to the end that every individual and

every organ of society, keeping this Declaration

constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and

education to promote respect for these rights and

freedoms and by progressive measures, national and

international, to secure their universal and effective

recognition and observance, both among the peoples

of Member States themselves and among the peoples

of territories under their jurisdiction.



Article 1. 


All human beings are born free and equal in dignity

and rights.


They are endowed with reason and conscience and

should act towards one another in a spirit of



Article 2. 


Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set

forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any

kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion,

political or other opinion, national or social origin,

property, birth or other status.


Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the

basis of the political, jurisdictional or international

status of the country or territory to which a person

belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-

governing or under any other limitation of



Article 3. 


Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of



Article 4. 


No one shall be held in slavery or servitude;


slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all

their forms.


Article 5. 


No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel,

inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.



Article 6. 


Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as

a person before the law.



Article 7. 


All are equal before the law and are entitled without

any discrimination to equal protection of the law.


All are entitled to equal protection against any

discrimination in violation of this Declaration and

against any incitement to such discrimination.



Article 8. 


Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the

competent national tribunals for acts violating the

fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or

by law.


Article 9. 


No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest,

detention or exile.


Article 10. 


Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and

public hearing by an independent and impartial

tribunal, in the determination of his rights and

obligations and of any criminal charge against him.



Article 11. 


(1) Everyone charged with a penal offence has the

right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty

according to law in a public trial at which he has

had all the guarantees necessary for his defence.


(2) No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence

on account of any act or omission which did not

constitute a penal offence, under national or

international law, at the time when it was



Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the

one that was applicable at the time the penal

offence was committed.



Article 12. 


No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference

with his privacy, family, home or correspondence,

nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation.


Everyone has the right to the protection of the law

against such interference or attacks.



Article 13. 


(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of movement

and residence within the borders of each State.


(2) Everyone has the right to leave any country,

including his own, and to return to his country.



Article 14. 


(1) Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in

other countries asylum from persecution.


(2) This right may not be invoked in the case

of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-

political crimes or from acts contrary to the

purposes and principles of the United Nations.



Article 15. 


(1) Everyone has the right to a nationality.


(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his

nationality nor denied the right to change his



Article 16. 


(1) Men and women of full age, without any limitation

due to race, nationality or religion, have the right

to marry and to found a family.


They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage,

during marriage and at its dissolution.


(2) Marriage shall be entered into only with the free

and full consent of the intending spouses.


(3) The family is the natural and fundamental group

unit of society and is entitled to protection by

society and the State.



Article 17. 


(1) Everyone has the right to own property alone as

well as in association with others.


(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his



Article 18. 


Everyone has the right to freedom of thought,

conscience and religion;


this right includes freedom to change his religion or

belief, and freedom, either alone or in community

with others and in public or private, to manifest his

religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and



Article 19. 


Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and



this right includes freedom to hold opinions without

interference and to seek, receive and impart

information and ideas through any media and

regardless of frontiers.



Article 20. 


(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful

assembly and association.


(2) No one may be compelled to belong to an



Article 21. 


(1) Everyone has the right to take part in the

government of his country, directly or through

freely chosen representatives.


(2) Everyone has the right of equal access to public

service in his country.


(3) The will of the people shall be the basis of the

authority of government;


this will shall be expressed in periodic and

genuine elections which shall be by universal and

equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or

by equivalent free voting procedures.



Article 22. 


Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to

social security and is entitled to realization, through

national effort and international co-operation and in

accordance with the organization and resources of

each State, of the economic, social and cultural

rights indispensable for his dignity and the free

development of his personality.



Article 23. 


(1) Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of

employment, to just and favourable conditions of

work and to protection against unemployment.


(2) Everyone, without any discrimination, has the

right to equal pay for equal work.


(3) Everyone who works has the right to just and

favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and

his family an existence worthy of human dignity,

and supplemented, if necessary, by other means

of social protection.


(4) Everyone has the right to form and to join trade

unions for the protection of his interests.



Article 24. 


Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including

reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic

holidays with pay.


Article 25. 


(1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living

adequate for the health and well-being of himself

and of his family, including food, clothing,

housing and medical care and necessary social

services, and the right to security in the event of

unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood,

old age or other lack of livelihood in

circumstances beyond his control.


(2) Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special

care and assistance.


All children, whether born in or out of wedlock,

shall enjoy the same social protection.



Article 26. 


(1) Everyone has the right to education.


Education shall be free, at least in the elementary

and fundamental stages.


Elementary education shall be compulsory.


Technical and professional education shall be

made generally available and higher education

shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of



(2) Education shall be directed to the full

development of the human personality and to the

strengthening of respect for human rights and

fundamental freedoms.


It shall promote understanding, tolerance and

friendship among all nations, racial or religious

groups, and shall further the activities of the

United Nations for the maintenance of peace.


(3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of

education that shall be given to their children.



Article 27. 


(1) Everyone has the right freely to participate in the

cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts

and to share in scientific advancement and its



(2) Everyone has the right to the protection of the

moral and material interests resulting from any

scientific, literary or artistic production of which

he is the author.


Article 28. 


Everyone is entitled to a social and international

order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in

this Declaration can be fully realized.



Article 29. 


(1) Everyone has duties to the community in which

alone the free and full development of his

personality is possible.


(2) In the exercise of his rights and freedoms,

everyone shall be subject only to such limitations

as are determined by law solely for the purpose of

securing due recognition and respect for the

rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the

just requirements of morality, public order and the

general welfare in a democratic society.


(3) These rights and freedoms may in no case be

exercised contrary to the purposes and principles

of the United Nations.



Article 30. 


Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as

implying for any State, group or person any right to

engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at

the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set

forth herein."